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Access control, sometimes called authorization, is how a web application grants access to content and functions to some users and not others. Access control sounds like a simple problem but is insidiously difficult to implement correctly. In addition, the users may fall into a number of groups or roles with different abilities or privileges. Developers frequently underestimate the difficulty of implementing a reliable access control mechanism. Many of these schemes were not deliberately designed, but have simply evolved along with the web site.
In these cases, access control rules are inserted in various locations all over the code. As the site nears deployment, the ad hoc collection of rules becomes so unwieldy that it is almost impossible to understand. Many of these flawed access control schemes are not difficult to discover and exploit.
Frequently, all that is required is to craft a request for functions or content that should not be granted. Once a flaw is discovered, the consequences of a flawed access control scheme can be devastating. In addition to viewing unauthorized content, an attacker might be able to change or delete content, perform unauthorized functions, or even take over site administration. One specific type of access control problem is administrative interfaces that allow site administrators to manage a site over the Internet.
Such features are frequently used to allow site administrators to efficiently manage users, data, and content on their site. In many instances, sites support a variety of administrative roles to allow finer granularity of site administration.
Due to their power, these interfaces are frequently prime targets for attack by both outsiders and insiders. All known web servers, application servers, and web application environments are susceptible to at least some of these issues. Even if a site is completely static, if it is not configured properly, hackers could gain access to sensitive files and deface the site, or perform other mischief.
Virtually all sites have some access control requirements. Therefore, an access control policy should be clearly documented. Also, the design documentation should capture an approach for enforcing this policy. If this documentation does not exist, then a site is likely to be vulnerable. The code that implements the access control policy should be checked. Such code should be well structured, modular, and most likely centralized. A detailed code review should be performed to validate the correctness of the access control implementation.
In addition, penetration testing can be quite useful in determining if there are problems in the access control scheme. Find out how your website is administrated. You want to discover how changes are made to webpages, where they are tested, and how they are transported to the production server.
If administrators can make changes remotely, you want to know how those communications channels are protected. Carefully review each interface to make sure that only authorized administrators are allowed access.
Also, if there are different types or groupings of data that can be accessed through the interface, make sure that only authorized data can be accessed as well. If such interfaces employ external commands, review the use of such commands to make sure they are not subject to any of the command injection flaws described in this paper.The introduction of the bill caused widespread criticism domestically and abroad from the legal profession, journalist organisations, business groups, and foreign governments fearing the erosion of Hong Kong's legal system and its built-in safeguards, as well as damage to Hong Kong's business climate.
Largely, this fear is attributed to China's newfound ability through this bill to arrest voices of political dissent in Hong Kong. There have been multiple protests against the bill in Hong Kong and other cities abroad.
On 9 June, protesters estimated to number from hundreds of thousands to more than a million marched in the streets and called for Chief Executive Carrie Lam to step down. On 4 September, after 13 weeks of protests, Lam officially promised to withdraw the bill upon the resumption of the legislative session from its summer recess.
In the final months of British rule, Hong Kong passed laws barring the extradition to mainland China due to concerns of freedoms promised under the one-country, two-systems formula.
The push came to a head in when a Chinese billionaire living in Hong Kong named Xiao Jianhua was abducted from his serviced apartment in Hong Kong by Chinese security forces, as a spillover of China's paramount leader and general secretary Xi Jinping 's mass anti-graft campaign. The Central Commission for Discipline Inspection had been frustrated by the fact that it had to resort to extraordinary rendition and thereafter pushed for an extradition treaty.
Chan admitted to Hong Kong police that he killed Poon, but the police were unable to charge him for murder or extradite him to Taiwan because no agreement is in place. Opposition expressed fears that the city would open itself up to the long arm of mainland Chinese law, putting people from Hong Kong at risk of falling victim to a different legal system. It therefore urged the government to establish an extradition arrangement with Taiwan only, and to sunset the arrangement immediately after the surrender of Chan Tong-kai.
The business community also raised concerns over the mainland's court system. The Liberal Party and the Business and Professionals Alliance for Hong Kong BPAthe two pro-business parties, suggested 15 economic crimes being exempted from the 46 offences covered by the extradition proposal. Only offences punishable by at least three years in prison would trigger the transfer of a fugitive, up from the previously stated one year.
Due to the vast power that politicians and officials exert over the mainland legal system, "businesses that want contracts in China to be respected typically include a provision that allows for any disputes to be resolved under Hong Kong law", thereby making Hong Kong a safe and stable haven for multinational corporations. The proposed extradition law would jeopardize Hong Kong's status, with some companies already considering relocation to Singapore.
The situation was similar to the Chief Executive Election, in which the business sectors were requested to support Carrie Lam under the pressure from the Beijing's Authority.
On 1 April, Hong Kong billionaire tycoon Joseph Lauformer chair of the Chinese Estates Holdings who was convicted of bribery and Money laundering in a land deal in Macau inapplied for a Judicial review over the bill in court. Lau's lawyers asked the court to make a declaration that the surrender of Lau to Macau would contravene the Hong Kong Bill of Rights.
The Hong Kong Bar Association released a statement expressing its reservations over the bill, saying that the restriction against any surrender arrangements with mainland China was not a "loophole", but existed in light of the fundamentally different criminal justice system operating in the Mainland, and concerns over the Mainland's track record on the protection of fundamental rights. The association also questioned the accountability of the Chief Executive as the only arbiter of whether a special arrangement was to be concluded with a requesting jurisdiction without the scrutiny of the Legislative Council or without expanding the role of the courts in vetting extradition requests.
Three senior judges and twelve leading commercial and criminal lawyers called the bill "one of the starkest challenges to Hong Kong's legal system" in a Reuters report.
They feared it would "put [the courts] on a collision course with Beijing", as the limited scope of extradition hearings would leave them little room to manoeuvre.He is known in the cinematic world for his slapstick acrobatic fighting style, comic timing, use of improvised weapons, and innovative stunts, which he typically performs himself. He has trained in Wushu or Kung Fu and Hapkido  and has been acting since the s, appearing in over films.
Chan is one of the most recognisable and influential cinematic personalities in the world, gaining a widespread following in both the Eastern and Western hemispheres, and has received stars on the Hong Kong Avenue of Stars and the Hollywood Walk of Fame.
He is an operatically trained vocalist and is also a Cantopop and Mandopop star, having released a number of albums and sung many of the theme songs for the films in which he has starred.
He is also a globally known philanthropist and has been named as one of the top 10 most charitable celebrities by Forbes magazine. Chan attended the Nah-Hwa Primary School on Hong Kong Islandwhere he failed his first year, after which his parents withdrew him from the school. Chan became close friends with fellow group members Sammo Hung and Yuen Biaoand the three of them later became known as the Three Brothers or Three Dragons.
Chan joined his parents in Canberra inwhere he briefly attended Dickson College and worked as a construction worker. He began his career by appearing in small roles at the age of five as a child actor.
InJackie Chan received a telegram from Willie Chana film producer in the Hong Kong film industry who had been impressed with Jackie's stunt work.
Willie Chan offered him an acting role in a film directed by Lo Wei. The film was unsuccessful because Chan was not accustomed to Lee's martial arts style. Despite the film's failure, Lo Wei continued producing films with similar themes, but with little improvement at the box office. Chan's first major breakthrough was the film Snake in the Eagle's Shadowshot while he was loaned to Seasonal Film Corporation under a two-picture deal.
The film established the comedic kung fu genre, and proved refreshing to the Hong Kong audience. When Willie Chan left the company, he advised Jackie to decide for himself whether or not to stay with Lo Wei. The dispute was resolved with the help of fellow actor and director Jimmy Wang Yuallowing Chan to stay with Golden Harvest. Willie Chan became Jackie's personal manager and firm friend, and remained so for over 30 years.
He was instrumental in launching Chan's international career, beginning with his first forays into the American film industry in the s. His first Hollywood film was The Big Brawl in After the commercial failure of The Protector inChan temporarily abandoned his attempts to break into the US market, returning his focus to Hong Kong films. With Dragon Lordhe began experimenting with elaborate stunt action sequences,  including the final fight scene where he performs various stunts, including one where he does a back flip off a loft and falls to the lower ground.
Chan produced a number of action comedy films with his opera school friends, Sammo Hung and Yuen Biao. The three co-starred together for the first time in in Project Awhich introduced a dangerous stunt-driven style of martial arts that won it the Best Action Design Award at the third annual Hong Kong Film Awards.
Hung co-directed with Corey Yuenand the villain in the film was played by Yuen Wahboth of whom were fellow graduates of the China Drama Academy. Chan rekindled his Hollywood ambitions in the s, but refused early offers to play villains in Hollywood films to avoid being typecast in future roles.Welcome To 4chan
For example, Sylvester Stallone offered him the role of Simon Phoenixa criminal in the futuristic film Demolition Man. Chan declined and the role was taken by Wesley Snipes. Chan finally succeeded in establishing a foothold in the North American market in with a worldwide release of Rumble in the Bronxattaining a cult following in the United States that was rare for Hong Kong movie stars. After leaving Golden Harvest inhe produced and starred alongside Shu Qi in Gorgeousa romantic comedy that focused on personal relationships and featured only a few martial arts sequences.
Chan then helped create a PlayStation game in called Jackie Chan Stuntmasterto which he lent his voice and performed the motion capture. A sequel, Shanghai Knights followed in and also featured his first on-screen fight scene with Donnie Yen.
Infilm scholar Andrew Willis stated that Chan was "perhaps" the "most recognised star in the world". Despite the success of the Rush Hour and Shanghai Noon films, Chan became frustrated with Hollywood over the limited range of roles and lack of control over the filmmaking process.
Filming of The Forbidden KingdomChan's first on-screen collaboration with fellow Chinese actor Jet Liwas completed on 24 August and the movie was released in April The movie featured heavy use of effects and wires. The film stars Sammo Hung and Wang Wenjie as father and son. In NovemberChan began filming Shinjuku Incidenta dramatic role featuring no martial arts sequences with director Derek Yeewhich sees Chan take on the role of a Chinese immigrant in Japan.Just two months of being taken down for criminal and dangerous activity8chan — now 8kun — is back, and reportedly asking users not to commit crimes.
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The site has been linked to white supremacismneo-Nazismthe alt-rightracism and anti-Semitismhate crimesand multiple mass shootings. In the aftermath of the back-to-back mass shootings on August 3 and August 4,in El Paso, Texasand Dayton, Ohiorespectively, the site was taken off clearnet on August 5,after the network infrastructure provider Cloudflare stopped providing their content delivery network CDN service.
Voxility, a web services company that had been renting servers to Epikthe site's new domain registrar, as well as Epik's CDN provider subsidiary BitMitigate, also terminated service. No experience or programming knowledge is necessary for users to create their own boards. Do not create boards with the sole purpose of posting or spreading such content. Brennan agreed to partner 8chan with the Japanese message board 2channel and subsequently relocated to the Philippines in October In Januarythe site changed its domain 8chan.
Despite subsequently regaining the domain, the site remained at 8ch. Numerous bugs in the Infinity software led to the funding and development of a successor platform dubbed "Infinity Next". After a several-month-long testing period, a migration to the new software was attempted in Decemberbut failed.
Following the three shootings in Christchurch, New Zealand, in March ; Poway, California, in April ; El Paso, Texas, in August in which the perpetrators of each used 8chan as a platform to spread their manifesto, there was increased pressure on those providing 8chan's Internet services to terminate their support.
Matthew Prince, CEO of Cloudflareinitially defended his firm's technological support of 8chan on August 3,the day of the El Paso shooting : "What happened in El Paso today is abhorrent in every possible way, and it's ugly, and I hate that there's any association between us and that For us the question is which is the worse evil?
However, by the next day, August 4, with increasing press attention, Cloudflare changed its position, and rescinded its support for 8chan effective midnight August 5 Pacific Timepotentially leaving the site open for denial of service attacks.
Prince stated: "Unfortunately the action we take today won't fix hate online It will almost certainly not even remove 8chan from the Internet. But it is the right thing to do. We just sent notice that we are terminating 8chan as a customer effective at midnight tonight Pacific Time.
The rationale is simple: they have proven themselves to be lawless and that lawlessness has caused multiple tragic deaths. Even if 8chan may not have violated the letter of the law in refusing to moderate their hate-filled community, they have created an environment that revels in violating its spirit.
Brennan, the creator of 8chan who ceased being the owner in and ceased working for the website instated on August 4,that 8chan should be shut down,  and subsequently thanked Cloudflare for its decision to pull support for 8chan. Tucows also terminated its support as 8chan's domain name registrarmaking the site difficult to access. In the wake of Cloudflare and Tucows' changes, 8chan switched its domain register to BitMitigatea division of Epik, a provider that had previously serviced far-right sites like Gab and The Daily Stormer.
After 8chan moved to Epik, the company's CEO Rob Monster wrote: "Freedom of speech and expression are fundamental rights in a free society. We enter into a slippery slope when we start to limit speech that makes us uncomfortable. Although the website was unreachable through its usual domain on the clearnet, users continued to access the site through its IP address and via its.
On August 6,the United States House Committee on Homeland Security called 8chan's owner, Jim Watkins, an American living in the Philippinesto testify about the website's efforts to tackle "the proliferation of extremist content, including white supremacist content".
In an interview with The Washington PostWatkins said that 8chan staff were building protections against cyberattacks to replace Cloudflare's services, and that the website could come back online as early as mid-September.
On October 7,8chan's official Twitter account and Jim Watkins' YouTube channel released a video that unveiled a new "8kun" logo. Brennan has vocally opposed 8chan's relaunch as 8kun, claiming the effort will not change the reputation previously associated with 8chan, and also citing his troubled relationship with 8chan administrators.
A spokesperson for Zare claimed in a statement to Vice that the team behind 8kun may have provided false details while registering themselves. Media Land LLC is owned by the Russian Alexander "Yalishanda" Volosovyk, who has been described as the "world's biggest 'bulletproof' hosting operator" and is known for enabling cybercriminal activity.Launched by Christopher "moot" Poole in October4chan hosts boards dedicated to a wide variety of topics, from anime and manga to video games, music, literature, fitness, politics, and sports, among others.
The site was created as a counterpart to the Japanese imageboard Futaba Channelalso known as 2chan,  and the first boards were created for posting images and discussion related to anime. The Guardian once summarized the 4chan community as "lunatic, juvenile The majority of posting on 4chan takes place on imageboardswhere users have the ability to share images and create threaded discussions.
8chan reappears with new name, request for users not to engage in illegal activity
Each board has its own set of rules and is dedicated to a specific topic, variously including anime and manga, video games, music, literature, fitness, politics, and sports, among others. Poole has acknowledged that donations alone could not keep the site online, and turned to advertising to help make ends meet.
Unlike most web forums, 4chan does not have a registration system, allowing users to post anonymously. A "capcode" may be used to attribute the post to "Anonymous Mod", although moderators often post without the capcode. Revealing oneself as a janitor is grounds for immediate dismissal. For instance, on December 28,4chan and other websites went down due to such an attack, following which Poole said on his blog, "We now join the ranks of MasterCardVisaPayPalet al.
The site was launched as 4chan. On March 1,Poole announced that he lacked the funds to pay the month's server bill, but was able to continue operations after receiving a swarm of donations from users. By November4chan made the transition to utilizing Cloudflare following a series of DDoS attacks. On January 21,Poole stepped down as the site's administrator, citing stress from controversies such as Gamergate as the reason for his departure.
In Octoberit was reported that the site was facing financial difficulties that could lead to its closure or radical changes. But I failed. I am sincerely sorry", citing server costs, infrastructure costs, and network fees. On November 17,it was announced that the site would be split into two, with the work-safe boards moved to a new domain, 4channel.
In a series of posts on the topic, Nishimura explained that the split was due to 4chan being blacklisted by most advertising companies, and that the new 4channel domain would allow for the site to receive advertisements by mainstream ad providers.
Poole kept his real-life identity hidden until it was revealed on July 9,in The Wall Street Journal. In AprilPoole was voted the world's most influential person of by an open Internet poll conducted by Time magazine.
On September 12,Poole gave a talk on why 4chan has a reputation as a "Meme Factory" at the Paraflows Symposium in Vienna, Austriawhich was part of the Paraflows 09 festival, themed Urban Hacking. In this talk, Poole mainly attributed this to the anonymous system, and to the lack of data retention on the site "The site has no memory.
David Kernell as a government witness.Sophos plans to cull its workforce by up to 16 percent and close some offices just three months after being acquired by private equity firm Thoma Bravo, according to media reports.
Sophos confirmed the restructuring in a statement to CRN, but did not respond to questions about how many workers were impacted and in what job functions or geographies.
Broken Access Control
Thoma Bravo did not respond to a request for comment. The Abingdon, U. The job cuts are impacting staff across multiple divisions and geographies, though the United Kingdom is believed to be the worst-hit location, according to The Register website.
The company intends to continue hiring for positions that are aligned with its transformation plan and will consider staff affected by the job cuts for those positions where appropriate, Private Equity News reported.
Sophos has multiple offices in eight countries including 10 sites in India; four sites in the United States; three sites in Germany and China; and two sites in Canada, Austria, Italy and the Netherlands. The acquisition closed in March. The private equity firm said in October that it planned to probe opportunities to streamline operational functions at Sophos to help accelerate top-line growth. Thoma Bravo also said at the time that it planned to reduce spending on legacy and noncore products while upping investment in areas like next-generation endpoint and network security that are expected to enhance the customer experience.
Thoma Bravo also said in October that it additionally planned to reduce noncritical administrative costs at Sophos as well as go-to-market program spending that offered a lower return on investment. From our advertisers.